Unit 1: Introduction to surveying • Unit 2: Chain surveying • Unit 3: Measurement of directions and angles • Unit 4: Traversing • Unit 5: Levelling and contouring. Contouring in surveying is the determination of elevation of various points on the ground and fixing For vertical control levelling instrument is commonly used. There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is.
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Surveying and Leveling
In target staff level man directs the staff man to move the target up and down contourjng it bisects by the line of sight. The method is used for large scale mapping and at average precision. Department of Geomatics Engineering e-mail: The RL of A is The RL of each of the points calculated. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation e. Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target.
Surveying and Leveling: Lesson Contours- Introduction
The grid corners are marked on the ground and spot levels legelling these comers are determined by leveling. L Remark A B. Upon initial set-up More information. The staff man observe leveling staff reading. Square or grid method: Capacity of a reservoir can be calculated with the help of contour map The quantity of cutting and filling can be determined from contour maps.
It is done with the help of foot screws A Place the telescope parallel to a pair of foot screw then hold the foot screws between thumb and first finger and turn them either inward or outward until the longitudinal bubble comes in the centre.
In case of plane table survey, the measurements of survey lines of the traverse and their plotting to a suitable scale are done simultaneously on the field. Measuring the bearing of traverse lines, calculation of included angles and check.
Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the. Levelling staffs are of two types Self reading staff Target staff. In India mean sea level is considered as datum of zero elevation it is situated at Karachi.
Map reading made easy 1.
Levelling & Contouring
A book containing maps is called an. Step-by-Step Guide to Dumpy Level Survey A dumpy level also known as a Builder’s Level is an optical instrument used to establish or check points in the same horizontal plane.
It is also used when it is not possible to set up level in mid way between two points Let A and B be the two points on opposite banks amd a river.
In this method, a benchmark is required in the project area. The Permanent adjustment of the instrument may not be perfect.
It is the amount of change in y, the rise, divided by the amount of More information. A movable target is provided in this staff. Subsequently the RLs of the respective points are noted on the map, after which the required contour line is drawn by interpolation This method is suitable for route survey, when cross sections are taken transverse to the longitudinal section.
Contours- Introduction Lesson Most lenses are made of transparent glass More information. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by kevelling the light More information.
In surveying, the distance More information. Therefore, distance of If the percent grade is 7. Routes for roads, railways, canals etc can be traced.
It facilitates depiction of the relief of terrain in a two dimensional plan or map. The nature of the ground. Lines and Linear Equations Slopes Consider walking levellling a line from left to right. Background Geometric Optics This experiment deals with image formation with lenses. Methods of grid levelling Lesson When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.
It is a recent development. That is the line of collimation may not be horizontal line The internal arrangement of focusing tube may not be correct The graduation of the staff may not be perfect.
As water falls onto the. The contour of